By Aaron D. Rubin
With a written historical past of approximately 5 thousand years, the Semitic languages include one of many international s earliest attested and longest attested households. popular family members contain Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Amharic, and Akkadian. This quantity offers an outline of this significant language relatives, together with either historical and smooth languages. After a short advent to the heritage of the kinfolk and its inner type, next chapters disguise subject matters in phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon.Each bankruptcy describes gains which are attribute of the Semitic language kin as an entire, in addition to a number of the extra notable advancements that ensue within the person languages. this gives either a typological assessment and an outline of extra designated gains. The chapters include plentiful examples from quite a few languages. all of the examples comprise morpheme via morpheme glosses, in addition to translations, which assist in making those examples transparent and obtainable even to these now not acquainted with a given language. Concluding the e-book is an in depth consultant to extra studying, which directs the reader to crucial reference instruments and secondary literature, and an updated bibliography.This short creation features a wealthy number of info, and covers issues no longer regularly present in brief sketches akin to this. The readability of presentation makes it valuable not just to these within the box of Semitic linguistics, but in addition to the overall linguist or language fanatic who needs to profit anything approximately this significant language relatives.
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Additional resources for A Brief Introduction to the Semitic Languages (Gorgias Handbooks)
1PL 7,kl-a food·ACC 'We brought money . . ' (Gen. SG five languages 'a girl who speaks five languages' (Erwin 1963) � Whe a Semitic relative pronoun stands in a prepositional . relallonshlp, a resumptive pronoun is normally employed. In some languages this is optional, but most often it is obligatory (100). Resumptive pronouns are also found even when the rela tive pronoun stands for the direct object, and in fact, such use of a resumptive pronoun is obligatory in some languages, including many ArabIC dIalects (101).
In Old Babylonian Akkadian, the ven tive suffix has the allomorphs -(a)m and -nim, and may be at tached to any finite verbal form. It gives the sense of direction or activity towards the speaker: contrast illik 'went' and ventive , iUik-am 'he came'; ublii 'they brought (there) and ventive ublii nim 'they brought here'; and il$i 'I went out' and ventive il$i-wn 'I came out here' (von Soden 1995). , taddin-wn 'you gave to me'. It is unclear if the Akkadian ventive has parallels in West Semitic.
Often such parti cles are proclitic or enclitic elements. Examples are Classical and Modem Standard Arabic fa-, Biblical Hebrew hii-, Ge'ez -nu and -hu (91), Tigrinya -do (92), and Amharic -Ild. The Arabic, He brew, and Ge'ez particles are all attached to the first constituent in the sentence, while the Tigrinya and Amharic particles are sentence-final. Examples of non-clitic interrogative particles are Classical and Modem Standard Arabic hal, Hebrew (mainly post Biblical) ha'lim, and Mehri w,l£ (93).