By Alluru S. Reddi
Written in a succinct query and solution structure, this finished source covers all components of nephrology and customary medical situations. approximately one thousand questions with designated solutions supply nephrology fellows, practising nephrologists and clinicians a greater realizing of nephrology and reduction arrangements for nephrology and inner drugs forums. Absolute Nephrology assessment good points the newest proof and guidance whereas pleasant a severe want in the nephrology community.
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Administration of KCl Administration of Ca gluconate Administration of MgSO4 Administration of D5W with KCl Administration of KCl, Ca gluconate, and MgSO4 The answer is C Hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypophosphatemia are typical electrolyte abnormalities in a patient with either acute or chronic alcoholism. There are several mechanisms for hypomagnesemia in an alcoholic patient, which in turn can cause hypokalemia and hypocalcemia. Hypokalemia in an alcoholic patient may be due to poor dietary intake, respiratory alkalosis, diarrhea, β-adrenergic stimulation during alcohol withdrawal, and Mg2+ deficiency.
Ethanol Ethylene glycol Methanol Toluene Isopropyl alcohol The answer is C Only formic acid formed from methanol is toxic to the optic nerve, causing visual impairment, blurred vision, eye pain, and blindness. Therefore, early institution of fomepizole is recommended to inhibit alcohol dehydrogenase and conversion of methanol to formaldehyde and formic acid. Suggested Reading Reddi AS. High anion gap metabolic acidosis. In Reddi AS. Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders. Clinical Evaluation and Management.
A 17-year-old female student is admitted for confusion and acute kidney injury. She is able to give some history that she had a fight with her boy friend 2 days ago, and she drank some liquid that was in their garage. She has no any other significant medical or illicit drug history. In the Emergency Department, her vital signs are stable. Other than altered mental status and confusion, her physical examination is normal. She weighs 60 kg. 2 Protein ¼ trace Blood ¼ negative Urine sediment ¼ envelope-like crystals Which one of the following toxic alcohol ingestions is the MOST likely cause of her symptoms?