By Anthony E. Redington, Alyn H. Morice
A complete overview of the medical and scientific elements of acute and protracted cough, this reference specializes in contemporary advancements in our figuring out of the molecular biology of putative cough receptors, the neural mechanisms taken with the afferent and efferent limbs, the important processing of the cough reflex, and peptides and different ingredients which can mediate or modulate the cough reflex. With chapters written through said specialists within the box, this guide covers present and capability healing brokers, quite a few methodologies to degree cough reflex sensitivity, and medical ways for the review of continual cough in adults and youngsters.
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Additional info for Acute and Chronic Cough
Functional studies suggest that RARs terminate within or beneath the epithelium and are localized to both intra- and extrapulmonary airways (11–17). RARs are differentiated from other airway afferent nerves by their rapid (1–2 sec) adaptation to sustained lung inflations (Fig. 2) (13–19). Other distinguishing properties of RARs include their sensitivity to lung collapse and/or lung deflation, their responsiveness to alterations in dynamic lung compliance (and thus their sensitivity to bronchospasm), and their conduction velocity (4–18 m/sec, suggestive of small myelinated axons) (11–21).
In guinea pigs, C-fiber subtypes may be distinguished based on their ganglionic origin and sites of termination in the airways. C-fibers arising from the jugular ganglia in guinea pigs innervate 32 Canning and Mazzone Figure 3 Neurokinin-containing C-ﬁbers innervate the rat tracheal mucosa. 5 and (B) substance P (SP) in wholemounts of rat trachea. Substance P-containing nerve ﬁbers occupy a dense neuronal plexus beneath and within the airway epithelium. The majority of the nerves in this epithelial plexus in rats are C-ﬁbers.
42. Hoenderop JG, van der Kemp AW, Hartog A, van de Graaf SF, van Os CH, Willems PH, Bindels RJ. Molecular identification of the apical Ca2þ channel in 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-responsive epithelia. J Biol Chem 1999; 274:8375–8378. 43. Peng JB, Chen XZ, Berger UV, Vassilev PM, Tsukaguchi H, Brown EM, Hediger MA. Molecular cloning and characterization of a channel-like transporter mediating intestinal calcium absorption. J Biol Chem 1999; 274: 22739–22746. 44. Nilius B, Prenen J, Hoenderop JG, Vennekens R, Hoefs S, Weidema AF, Droogmans G, Bindels RJ.