By Renata Dmowska, Barry Saltzman
This sequence offers a venue for longer stories of present advances in geophysics. Written at a degree available to graduate scholars, the articles serve to increase wisdom of varied fields and should be invaluable in classes and seminars.
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Extra resources for Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 41
Which are linearly interpolated. From Mann Ž1998.. , 1995.. Jones and Briffa Ž1992. favor the use of sea surface temperature ŽSST. rather than marine air temperature ŽMAT. measures of maritime temperature variations owing to historical changes in the diurnal timings of sampling in the latter case. , 1990.. Finally, we examine the bias of inhomogeneities in the spatial sampling of climate data by employing sparse subsamples of the full spatial domain Žsee Fig. 14. to the data set described above.
In this case, the sparseness of ‘‘tropical’’ sampling, where the interdecadal signal is most prominent, leads to decreased detectability of the signal; it is just barely isolated at the 99% level of signiﬁcance. Only with the very sparse network of 5 gridpoints in case V does the signal detection procedure suffer markedly. This network, for example, only samples the grid where the secular trend either vanishes or is relatively weak. Not surprisingly, the secular peak is not isolated as 48 MICHAEL E.
The canonical spatial pattern of the signal can be represented by the complex ﬁeld ˆx Ž m. ␥ Ž f 0 . Ž m. A rms Ž f 0 . , Ž 16. where the pattern is scaled by the root-mean-square amplitude A rmsŽ f 0 . of the modulating envelope A˜1Ž f 0 , t . Žbecause of amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the pattern is variable from cycle to cycle.. , relative timing of peak minimum anomaly at a particular location for a particular variable.. This information is often more physically portrayed in terms of a sequence of real-valued anomaly patterns Žpositive or negative values of the anomaly ﬁeld.