By Jan W. Gooch
This functional source offers chemists, formulators, forensic scientists, academics, and scholars with the newest details at the composition of polymeric fabrics. After a dialogue of ideas, chapters conceal formulations, fabrics, and research of paint, plastic, and adhesives and describe reformulation tips on how to try research effects. an in depth desk of contents and vast index with listings of appropriate fabrics permits readers easy accessibility to subject matters. different beneficial properties comprise a variety of fabrics indexed in line with their trivial, exchange, and medical names cross-referenced for simple identity.
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Extra resources for Analysis and Deformulation of Polymeric Materials: Paints, Plastics, Adhesives, and Inks (Topics in Applied Chemistry)
When surface detail is not readily visible because contrast is low, phase contrast is a useful means of enhancing contrast. Phase contrast enhances optical path differences and, as surface detail generally involves differences in optical path (differences in height), these differences are more apparent to the eye by phase contrast. It is an advantage to be able to generate black-and-white or color photomicrographs of the specimen through a microscope. All major microscope manufacturers offer such equipment.
If one is to study the surfaces of solids, two approaches are possible. In one approach, a replica of the surface can be made-forexample, a carbon replica can be made by vacuumdepositing a 100- to 1000-Å film on the surface-and be carefully removed by some etching technique and then mounted in the microscope. The image obtained from such a replica does represent the surface topography, but it is frequently subject to distortion and artifacts and is often difficult to interpret. Moreover, the process of replication seriously cuts down the resolution ultimately obtainable with the instrument.
A Leica SZ6 Series Stereoscope is shown in Fig. 2. Because each eye views the object from a different angle, separated by about 14°, a stereoimage is obtained. 15 and the magnification to about 200×. The erect image is an advantage, and the solution to most surface problems starts with the stereomicroscope. There is ample working distance between the objective and the preparation, and the illumination is flexible. Many stereos permit transmitted illumination and some permit bright-field top lighting.