By Helmut Liebl
Authored by way of a pioneer of the sphere, this review of charged particle optics offers a high-quality creation to the sphere for all physicists wishing to layout their very own equipment or larger comprehend the tools with which they paintings. utilized Charged Particle Optics starts off via introducing electrostatic lenses and fields used for acceleration, focussing and deflection of ions or electrons. next chapters supply designated descriptions of electrostatic deflection components, uniform and non-uniform magnetic area fields, photograph aberrations, and, eventually, fringe box confinement. A bankruptcy on functions is additional.
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Authored through a pioneer of the sector, this review of charged particle optics offers a great creation to the sector for all physicists wishing to layout their very own gear or greater comprehend the tools with which they paintings. utilized Charged Particle Optics starts via introducing electrostatic lenses and fields used for acceleration, focussing and deflection of ions or electrons.
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Extra info for Applied Charged Particle Optics
The theoretical energy resolution is obtained from the relation s1 L2 = y2 (δ) = L2 λ L1 ∆V V0 , th ∆V V0 = th s1 1 . 25) Note that the image distance L2 disappears. 25). This means, the same energy resolution is obtained with a ﬁxed ratio s1 /L1 using a condenser with the same sector angle φ but diﬀerent radii re . The radius re , however, determines the angular magniﬁcation and also the image aberrations. e. 6◦ . In this case, because g = 0, the image position is close to the exit boundary when the object distance L1 is large in comparison with re .
The arrangement shown in Fig. 24 can be characterized by the matrix product of the transfer matrices: ﬁrst aperture × uniform ﬁeld × second aperture. The particles have diﬀerent energies before and behind the arrangement, viz. eV1 and eV2 , which is termed an “immersion lens”. This notation is chosen in analogy to light optics, where it characterizes a lens with diﬀerent indices of refraction in front and behind the lens. The arrangement shown in Fig. 25 is characterized by the matrix product of ﬁve transfer matrices: ﬁrst aperture × ﬁrst uniform ﬁeld × second aperture × second uniform ﬁeld × third aperture.
This can be important when space charge limitations play a role at the emitting surface. There, a higher ﬁeld strength allows a higher emission current density. On the other hand, for a given beam energy eV2 , the voltage V1 required in case Fig. 31 may become prohibitively high causing breakdown problems. Other beam parameters have also to be considered: the position of the virtual emitting surface is found with −a = r2 r2 = r1 =2L1 r1 2L1 m11 + m12 . 1. 8 Note: These are calculated values for the condition that the aperture diameters are small compared to the aperture distances.