By Bill Karwin
Invoice Karwin has helped hundreds of thousands of individuals write higher SQL and construct more desirable relational databases. Now he's sharing his selection of antipatterns the commonest mistakes he's pointed out in these hundreds of thousands of requests for help.
Most builders aren't SQL specialists, and lots of the SQL that will get used is inefficient, difficult to take care of, and infrequently simply simple flawed. This e-book exhibits you the entire universal blunders, after which leads you thru the simplest fixes. What's extra, it indicates you what's at the back of those fixes, so you'll study much approximately relational databases alongside the way in which.
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Extra info for SQL Antipatterns: Avoiding the Pitfalls of Database Programming
We need to check for invalid input. Yes, that’s a bug. Yes, please add a check. That fixed it. 14 5 4 13 8 12 11 Once you have assigned each node with these numbers, you can use them to find ancestors and descendants of any given node. For example, you can retrieve comment #4 and its descendants by searching for nodes whose numbers are between the current node’s nsleft and nsright. comment_id = 4; You can retrieve comment #6 and its ancestors by searching for nodes whose numbers span the current node’s numbers.
George Orwell, Animal Farm Chapter 4 ID Required Recently I answered a question that I see frequently, from a software developer trying to prevent duplicate rows. At first I thought he must lack a primary key. But that wasn’t his problem. In his content management database, he stored articles for publishing on a website. He used an intersection table for a many-to-many association between a table of articles and a table of tags. sql CREATE TABLE ArticleTags ( id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY, article_id BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL, tag_id BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL, FOREIGN KEY (article_id) REFERENCES Articles (id), FOREIGN KEY (tag_id) REFERENCES Tags (id) ); He was getting incorrect results from queries when counting the number of articles with a given tag.
Likewise, if your application receives a comma-separated format from another source and you simply need to store the full list in a database and retrieve it later in exactly the same format, there’s no need to separate the values. Be conservative if you decide to employ denormalization. Start by using a normalized database organization, because it permits your application code to be more flexible, and it allows your database to help preserve data integrity. 5 Solution: Create an Intersection Table Instead of storing the account_id in the Products table, store it in a separate table, so each individual value of that attribute occupies a separate row.